Diarrhea in Children: Causes and Treatments
Children tend to get diarrhea much more often than adults. You can help soothe your child's diarrhea and discomfort with these tips about causes and home treatments.
Diarrhea in Children: Common Causes and Treatments
Diarrhea is the body's way of ridding itself of germs, and most episodes last a few days to a week. Diarrhea often occurs with fever, nausea, vomiting, cramps, and dehydration. Some of the most common reasons kids get diarrhea include:
Infection from viruses like rotavirus, bacteria like salmonella and, rarely, parasites like giardia. Viruses are usually the cause of a child's diarrhea. Along with loose stool, symptoms of a viral gastroenteritis infection often include vomiting, stomach ache, headache, and fever.
When treating viral gastroenteritis -- which can last 5-14 days -- it's important to prevent fluid loss. Offer additional breast milk or an oral rehydration solution (ORS) to infants and young children. Water alone doesn't have enough sodium, potassium, and other nutrients to safely rehydrate very young children. Be sure to talk to your doctor about the best way to get fluids back into your child.
Older children with diarrhea can drink anything they like to stay hydrated, including ORS and brand-name products (their names usually end in "lyte"). Popsicles can also be a good way to get fluids into a child who's been vomiting and needs to rehydrate slowly.
Be sure to consult with a doctor if you have travelled outside of the country recently. Your child may need medical care.
Medications like laxatives or antibioticscan also lead to diarrhea in children as well as adults.
For mild diarrhea caused by medication, keep your child safely hydrated. If a course of antibiotics is causing your child's diarrhea, be sure to continue the medication and call your doctor. Your doctor may recommend reducing the dose or switching to a different antibiotic.
Studies show that yogurt with live cultures or probiotics can help ease diarrhea caused by antibiotics. Cultures and probiotics help replenish healthy gut bacteria killed by antibiotics.
Food poisoning can also cause diarrhea in kids. Symptoms usually come on quickly, may include vomiting, and tend to go away within 24 hours.
Treatment for food poisoning-related diarrhea is the same as for the diarrhea caused by infection: Keep your child hydrated and call your doctor with any questions.
Other causes of diarrhea include irritable bowel disease, Crohn's disease, food allergies, and celiac disease. If you're not sure what's causing your child's diarrhea, give your doctor a call.
Children and Diarrhea: Recognizing Dehydration
Dehydration is one of the most worrisome complications of diarrhea in children. Mild diarrhea usually doesn't cause significant fluid loss, but moderate or severe diarrhea can.
Severe dehydration is dangerous; it can cause seizures, brain damage, even death. Know the signs of dehydration. Call your doctor if your child has:
- Dizziness and light-headedness
- Dry, sticky mouth
- Dark yellow urine, or very little or no urine
- Few or no tears when crying
- Cool, dry skin
- Lack of energy