Food Additives May Make Kids Hyper
Artificial Colors, Additives Boost Hyperactive Behavior in Toddlers and Children, Study Shows
Sept. 6, 2007 -- Artificial coloring and preservatives in food can increase
hyperactivity in kids, a new British study shows.
Researchers from the University of Southampton in the U.K. evaluated the
effects of drinks containing artificial colors and additives on 3-year-old and
8- and 9-year-old British kids and found that the additives made hyperactive
behavior worse -- at least up to middle childhood.
The link between such food additives and hyperactivity has been long
debated. "The importance of our work is that effects have been found for
3-year-old and for 8- and 9-year-old children in the general population, not
just for those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
" says Jim Stevenson, PhD, professor of psychology at the university and a
co-author of the study, published online Sept. 6 in The Lancet.
"The size of the effects is similar to that found for children with
But a U.S. expert said that scientific evidence overall does not point to a
definitive link between additives and hyperactivity. He said it is premature,
based on these study results, to suggest a public policy change. But the U.K.
Food Standards Agency, which funded the study, has already revised its advice
to parents about what to feed their children.
The U.K. Study
The researchers evaluated the effects of different "cocktails" of
beverages containing artificial food colors and other additives in 153
3-year-olds and 144 8- and 9-year-olds from the general population. In all, 267
of the 297 children completed the study and were evaluated by teachers and
parents for behavior changes after drinking the trio of beverages.
The children drank two types of beverages with food additives commonly found
in sweets, beverages, and other foods, and then a placebo drink (one with no
additives). One mix had artificial colorings, including sunset yellow (also
called E110), carmoisine (E122), tartrazine (E102), ponceau 4R (E124), and the
preservative sodium benzoate. Another beverage mix included the current
average daily consumption of food additives by the two age ranges of children
and included quinoline yellow (E104), allura red (E129) , sunset yellow,
carmoisine, and sodium benzoate.
Teachers and parents evaluated behaviors after the children drank each type
of beverage, and the older children also were tested on their attention
The older children's behavior was adversely affected by both of the mixtures
with additives, compared with placebo, Stevenson's group found.
The younger children had more hyperactivity with the first mixture compared
with placebo, but their responses to the second beverage varied greatly.
Perspective and Reaction
About 2 million children in the U.S. have ADHD, according to the National
Institutes of Health.
The link between food additives and hyperactivity in children has been
debated for many decades, says Roger Clemens, DrPH, a professor of pharmacology
and pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Southern California School of
Pharmacy and a spokesman for the Institute of Food Technologists.