Refusing to Vaccinate Affects Other Kids, Too
Study: Vaccine Refusal Fueled San Diego Measles Outbreak
March 22, 2010 -- A CDC investigation shows a measles outbreak in San Diego
was fueled by kids whose parents refused to vaccinate them,
thus endangering children too young to be vaccinated.
Measles is one of the world's most highly contagious viral diseases. Thanks
to high vaccination rates, the dangerous disease stopped circulating in the
U.S. But now there are ominous signs it may come back.
The reason: Pockets of parents who believe the measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine is
more dangerous than the diseases. Such beliefs led to a drop-off in MMR
vaccination in England -- and the subsequent return of measles.
Could it happen in the U.S.? Yes, suggests an in-depth study of the 2008
measles outbreak in San Diego.
San Diego Measles Outbreak
The outbreak began in January 2008 when a 7-year-old boy whose parents
refused to vaccinate him returned to the U.S. from Switzerland. Before symptoms
appeared, he infected his 3-year-old brother and 9-year-old sister. Neither was
Neither were 11% of the boy's classmates, whose parents shared similar
beliefs that a healthy lifestyle protected against disease while vaccines were
riskier than the illnesses they prevented.
In the end, 839 people were exposed to measles. Eleven were infected, and 48
exposed kids too young to be vaccinated were quarantined -- forbidden to leave
their homes -- for 21 days. Jane Seward, MBBS, MPH, was the CDC's senior
investigator for the outbreak.
"Even with the very high vaccine coverage that we saw in San Diego, if you
have a community of vaccine refusers you can get an outbreak," Seward tells
WebMD. "Had the local health department not been extremely aggressive in
quarantining everyone who came in contact with a case who did not have
immunity, the outbreak would have broadened."
Fortunately, nobody died or suffered neurological damage. But there was one
very close call.
Megan Campbell's 10-month-old son was in the pediatrician's waiting room
when the boy who'd been infected in Switzerland came in. The infant got very, very sick --
so sick that Campbell and her family thought he was going to die.
"There were moments I was worried he wouldn't make it because this fever just wasn't letting up.
This 106-degree fever, and this rash that made my son look
like an alien almost, and I wondered if he was going to be the same boy he was
a week before," Campbell told interviewer Susan Burton on the radio program
This American Life.
The infant spent three days in the hospital. He dropped from 18 to 12 pounds
in five days. He was sick for weeks; Campbell and her husband had to take a
month off of work. Fortunately, the boy recovered fully.
"I just wondered how this family who had brought this into San Diego, what
were they thinking?" Campbell said on the radio program. "Were they thinking
they were part of something that put that child there? Did they feel for us at
all? Did they feel bad about it?"